The future of sustainable human health and agriculture rests on our ability to view microbial evolution as part of the solution rather than the problem. Black Bruno Magli Mens Francesco OxfordThe Koskella lab  takes on this challenge by combining discovery-based science on plant microbiomes with hypothesis-driven experimentation. Our research examines host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions by first identifying patterns in nature and then, in line with current theory where available,Wood Oiled Suede Frye Women's Sabrina Double Buckle BootNavy bluee Suede Massimo Matteo Mens Suede Penny Loafer - Bottega Veneta Floral Green Red Leather Boots with Zipper 430535 8071- Alberto Fasciani Women's URSULA64490BLACK Black Leather Ankle Bootsgenerating predictions to explicitly test in the laboratory using a combination of experimental evolution, microbial ecology approaches, Brown Mezlan Mens Cavill Loaferand molecular biological techniques.

We focus primarily on how plant-microbiome, plant-pathogen, and bacteria-phage interactions occur, both as model systems for understanding fundamental principles and with the aim of leveraging these findings for design of novel disease management strategies. - Stuart Weitzman Alljill Anthracite Suede Over The Knee Boot- Prada Women's 1S740F 038 F0002 Leather shoesWe integrate ecological and evolutionary thinking with cutting-edge microbiological and molecular approaches to gain insight to microbiome establishment and function, within-microbiome interactions, and the role that microbiota and phages play in shaping disease. For more information on ongoing research projects, look here.

The Koskella lab at our end-of-semester lab lunch (May 2019)

A brief introduction to the lab and our recent research:

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I am an evolutionary ecologist interested in how species interactions influence genetic diversity within populations, diversity between populations, and species diversity at the community level. By combining evolutionary theory on coevolution, population dynamics, and infection genetics,Wheat Frye Womens NAT Flower Engineer Engineer BootBlack Hi Shine Leather Ted Baker Mens Mhain Oxford- AQUAZZURA Women's SHOMIDB1SUE105 Red Suede Ankle Boots- SERGIO ROSSI Women's A43843MVIV015755 Pink Leather Pumps I directly test the underlying assumptions and predicted outcomes of host-pathogen and microbial interactions through the lens of human health and agricultural sustainability.

My previous work was primarily focused on host – parasite coevolution; first between a smut fungus and a plant (e.g. Faded Black Frye Mens Grady Jodphur Western Boot), then a trematode and a snail (e.g. Walnut Calf Allen Edmonds Men's Lake Forest Penny Loafer), and most recently between bacteriophage viruses and the bacteria they infect, which are themselves parasites of plants (e.g. if phages are locally adapted to bacteria, Navy Suede L.K. Bennett Women's Fern Pointy Toe Pumpsand Platinum Vernis Mephisto Womens Lissandra Platform Dress Sandal). The types of fundamental questions I’ve address are:

1) How do pathogens/parasites adapt to better infect their hosts? And at what scale / speed are they capable of adapting?

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2017). Adaptation of the pathogen, Pseudomonas syringae, - SERGIO ROSSI Women's A80290MVIV019000 White Patent Leather Pumps- Fausto Puglisi Women's FRD50181004 Multicolor Cotton Dressduring experimental evolution on a native vs. alternative host plant. Molecular ecology, 26(7), 1790-1801.

Koskella, B. (2014). Bacteria-phage interactions across time and space: merging local adaptation and time-shift experiments to understand phage evolution. The American Naturalist, 184(S1), S9-S21.

Koskella, B., Thompson, J. N., Preston, G. M., & Buckling, A. (2011). - GIUSEPPE ZANOTTI DESIGN Women's RS90026001 Silver Polyester Slip On SneakersBlack Spaz Clergerie Womens Santi02Local biotic environment shapes the spatial scale of bacteriophage adaptation to bacteria. The American Naturalist, 177(4), 440-451.

Greischar, M. A., & Koskella, B. (2007). A synthesis of experimental work on parasite local adaptation. Ecology Letters, 10(5), 418-434.

2) How do hosts respond to this adaptation (i.e. coevolve) and become more resistant to their local pathogens/parasites? - CHLOÉ Women's CH30081E18IA999 Black Suede Ankle BootsBlack Report Signature Womens Lani Peep Toe Classic PumpsAnd are they paying a significant cost for this evolved resistance?Off White Aquatalia Mens Kirk Pebbled Calf Penny LoaferTiesta Di Mgold Rustic Bed Stu Men's Predege Combat Boot.

Koskella, B., & Parr, N. (2015). The evolution of bacterial resistance against bacteriophages in the horse chestnut phyllosphere is general across both space and time. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, 370(1675), 20140297.

Meaden, S., Paszkiewicz, K., & Koskella, B. (2015). The cost of phage resistance in a plant pathogenic bacterium is context‐dependent. Evolution, 69(5), 1321-1328.

Koskella, B. (2013). Phage-mediated selection on microbiota of a long-lived host. Current Biology, 23(13), 1256-1260.

Koskella, B., Lin, D. M., Buckling, A., & Thompson, J. N. (2011).Beige (Dusty pink 203) Marc Cain Women's Sneaker TrainersGraphito Rustic Bed Stu Women's Glaye Boot - Givenchy Women's BE6012E087001 Black Leather Ankle BootsLIURUIJIA Women's Cutout Side Buckle Peep Toe Stacked Chunky Heel Ankle Bootie GGLX- 579-150The costs of evolving resistance in heterogeneous parasite environments. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, rspb20112259.

3) Can antagonistic coevolution lead to increased diversity? For example, do pathogens/parasites preferentially target common hosts (i.e. the hosts that are the most fit) and therefore impose a rare-host advantage?

Morella, N. M., Gomez, A. L., Wang, G., Leung, M. S., & Koskella, B. (2018). The impact of bacteriophages on phyllosphere bacterial abundance and composition. Molecular ecology, 27(8), 2025-2038.

Koskella, B., & Lively, C. M. (2009). Evidence for negative frequency‐dependent selection during experimental coevolution of a freshwater snail and a sterilizing trematode. Evolution: International Journal of Organic Evolution, 63(9), 2213-2221.

and 4) Does this coevolution among hosts and parasites matter to human health, agriculture, and conservation? Can we use our understanding about when and how pathogens and commensals evolve to design better treatments and to predict and prevent the spread of diseases?

Koskella, B., & Taylor, T. B. (2018). Multifaceted impacts of bacteriophages in the plant microbiome. Annual review of phytopathology, 56, 361-380.

Lin, D., & Koskella, B. (2015). Friend and foe: XOXO Womens Travis Over The Knee BootKenneth Cole New York Women's Peggy Fuzzy Slipper Sandal Slidefactors influencing the movement of the bacterium Helicobacter pylori along the parasitism–mutualism continuum. Evolutionary applications, 8(1), 9-22.

Meaden, S., & Koskella, B. (2013). Exploring the risks of phage application in the environment. Frontiers in microbiology, 4, 358.

So far, the body of evidence produced by the scientific community over decades of work suggests that parasites can evolve rapidly and specifically to infect their hosts, but that this doesn’t always mean they get more harmful or even better at infecting.Cherry Red Smooth Dr. Martens Unisex 101 SmoothBlack Ebony White WILSON Rush Pro 3.0 Mens Tennis shoes There is also clear evidence that hosts respond by evolving increased resistance, and that this often comes at a cost such as decreased growth or reproduction. This ongoing coevolution, in which neither parasite nor host is winning the battle has been called ‘Red Queen’ dynamics, based on the idea from “Alice Through the Looking Glass” that you have to run as fast as you can just to stay in the same placeBlack Leather Joie Women's Barlow BootB ASICS Gel-Quantum 360 4 LE Men's Running shoes Black.Women's shoes Models Summer Roman Wind Slope with Sandals Female Fish Mouth Open Toe High HeelsTAOFFEN Women Fashion Hidden Heel Half Boots Pull On At last these ideas are beginning to be incorporated into the design and use of drug treatments (sometimes referred to as Darwinian Medicine) and used to build predictive models of disease spread in our increasingly-connected world. My work has taken advantage of a very powerful approach to address these questions by experimentally evolving hosts and parasites in the laboratory, Desert Suede Paul Green Womens Tico Heel Sandal- Nike Zoom Rookie - BQ3379-100therefore controlling for all the other “noise” out there in nature (Black 3DM Lifestyle Men's Handcrafted Genuine Leather Penny Slip-On Leather Lined Loafer).- Premiata Men's ZACZAC3832 Beige Suede SneakersWeathered Russet Ariat Women's Venttek Baja Oxford Western Boot Wide Square Toe However,CarziCuzin Women Fashion Thick Sole shoesNine West Womens Guinup Linen Oxford Flat I always try to go back to nature’s microcosm to find out whether what holds true in the lab can be used to explain what we see in the real world.- Nike AIR MAX 97 Premium - 312834-201

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